Agriculture imposes external costs upon society through pesticides, excessive water usage, loss of natural environment and assorted other things 

In quest for economic development, which seeks to increase the quantum of economic output without caring about the short- and long-term short-changes of human and material resources arising from the process, the activities of people and nations conquer and wreck the world, rather than sustain it for the present and future generations. Progress in agriculture, industry, transportation and technology is usually the barometer of economic development of any nation. Such activities of man have created adverse effects on all living organisms in the biosphere. Rapid industrialization has left with us polluted rivers, contaminated soil, depleted wildlife and exhausted natural resources. As a result, the environment of today has become foul, contaminated and harmful for the health of living organisms, including man. The unlimited rapacious exploitation of the splendid plentifulness of nature by man has disturbed the heritage of ecological balance existing between living and non-living components on the earth planet. This undesirable situation created by man has threatened the survival of man himself and other biota on the earth

Some of the more common soil contaminants are fertilizers, pesticides and chemical substances/elements, such as lead from paint dust contacting with the soil, chlorinated hydrocarbons, heavy metals (such as chromium, cadmium found in rechargeable batteries and lead found in lead paint, aviation fuel and still in some countries, gasoline), zinc, arsenic and benzene A widespread practice of recycling industrial by-products into fertilizer result in the contamination of the soil with various metals.


The Nigerian environmental policy covers the legislations, standards, regulations and administrations adopted to control activities with potential damaging effects on the country’s environment. Environmental laws have been formulated to deal with a variety of environmental pollutants, such as toxic chemicals, noise, etc.; control particular activities, such as mining, power generation, etc.; and provide general guidelines for protecting basic natural resources, such as air, land and water.

Nigerian environmental laws consist of framework environmental legislation, sectoral legislation and incidental legislation. A framework environmental legislation is a single law which contains a comprehensive system of laws for environmental management. Such legislation includes the Harmful Wastes (Special Criminal Provisions) Act 1988 Cap 165 LFN 1990; Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) Act 1988 Cap 131 LFN 1990; Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Act 1992 and Nigerian Urban and Regional Planning Act. The Sectoral legislation addresses specific aspects of the environment and human activities and includes Mineral Act 1956, Oil Pipeline Act 1958, Oil in Navigable Waters Act 1968, Petroleum Act 1969 and Factories Act 1987. Incidental legislation are those laws that are not specifically intended to address environmental issues, but do contain some elements that have an impact on environmental issues. It includes Water Works Act 1915, Criminal Code 1916 Cap 77 LFN 1990 and Public Health Act 1917(Eneh, 2010Anukam, 1997).

Nigeria’s environmental policy is aimed at achieving sustainable development in the country and, in particular, at securing for all Nigerians a quality environment adequate for their health and well-being; conserve and use the natural environment and resources for the benefit of present and future generations; restore, maintain and enhance ecosystems and ecological processes essential for the functioning of the biosphere and for the preservation of biological diversity and to adopt the principle of optimum sustainable yield in the use of living natural resources and ecosystems; raise public awareness and promote understanding of essential linkages between environment and development and to encourage individual and community participation in environmental improvement efforts; and co-operate in good faith with other countries, international organizations and agencies to achieve optimal use of trans-boundary natural resources and effective prevention or abatement of trans-boundary environmental pollution. This is our focus as an organisation and we aim to build and environmental friendly environment. Source: Sciencealert